X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

X-ray Diffraction

Technique:
X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is an analytical technique used to identify phases in a wide variety of crystalline materials, such as minerals, corrosion products, thin films, bulk materials and polymers.

Rigaku SmartLab XRD
Rigaku SmartLab XRD at SSW

Instrument:
The Rigaku SmartLab is a highly automated, multipurpose X-ray diffractometer (XRD). This fully loaded system is a high-resolution XRD equipped with a Cross Beam Optics (CBO) system and a high-precision theta-theta goniometer featuring a horizontal sample mount and a 2D HyPix-3000 detector. The HyPix-3000 is a hybrid multi-dimensional detector with a large active area of approximately 3000 mm² with a small pixel size of 100 μm², resulting in a detector with high spatial resolution. In addition, the HyPix-3000 is a single photon counting X-ray detector with a high count rate of greater than 10⁶ cps/pixel and a fast readout speed. The system features a 2.2 kW long-fine focus X-ray tube (Cu X-ray) with a focal spot of 0.4 mm x 12 mm.
The system incorporates a high-resolution θ/θ closed loop goniometer drive system with an available in-plane diffraction arm. Rigaku’s patented cross beam optics (CBO) allows rapid switching between parafocusing geometry for powder samples and parallel beam geometry for thin films and epitaxial layers.
System Capabilities:
Powder materials: phase identification, crystalline strain and size, crystallinity, structural analysis and refinement (Rietveld and RIR methods), stress measurement and transmission.

Thin films: structural analysis, texture analysis, in-plane diffraction, crystal quality analysis (rocking curve and reciprocal space mapping), high resolution X-ray diffraction and reflectivity (HRXRD and HRXRR), GIXRD depth profiles, 2D stress and PF measurement.
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): particle/pore size distribution and correlation length analysis, nanoscale structural analysis.

Micro-XRD (µ-XRD): The Micro Area Measurement package consists of a CBO-f Polycapillary optics and a CCD camera for sample viewing and positioning. The CBO-f polycapillary optics produce a small, high intensity X-ray beam with a 400 µm diameter. The X-ray beam can then be further collimated to produce small spots ranging from 200 to 50 µm in diameter on the sample surface. The CCD imaging system is used to identify areas of interest and precisely position the sample for single or multiple area analysis (µ-XRD mapping).

Rigaku SmartLab XRD Sample Analysis Chamber
Rigaku SmartLab XRD Sample Analysis Chamber

Analysis Software:

  • Crystallinity determination module
  • Crystallite size and lattice strain determination module
  • Residual stress analysis module
  • PDXL quantitative analysis package
  • Whole pattern Fitting/Rietveld
  • GlobalFit Reflectivity
  • NanoSolver SAXS Analysis Software
  • 2-Dimensional Data Processing Software

Databases:

  • PDF-4+ Database
  • Crystallography Open Database (COD)
  • FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)